The Atlantic Community

It is a remarkable comment on our affairs that the former Prime Minister of a great sovereign state should thus be received as an honorary citizen of another. I say “great sovereign  state” with design and emphasis, for I reject the view that Britain and the Commonwealth should now be relegated to a tame and … Read more » “The Atlantic Community”

Late Antiquity

Many belief that shadows similar to those of their own times had come to fall over the last centuries of the Roman Empire, as a result of the military and social crisis that set in after the year 200 AD. There was life after the 3rd century; and this life came to bear the name … Read more » “Late Antiquity”

The Origins of the Nation-State

Between 1050 and 1350 a fierce struggle developed between the papacy and the German Empire over competing claims and jurisdiction. The struggle acquired a permanent influence on ways of thinking about society and government. In the long run it contributed to the emergence of constitutionalism in Europe and steps towards the creation of Nation-States (L. … Read more » “The Origins of the Nation-State”

Modern art in the twelfth century

By the eleventh and twelfth centuries there had emerged in western Europe within Church art a new sphere of artistic creation without religious content and imbued with values of spontaneity, individual fantasy, delight in color and movement, and the expression of feeling that anticipate modern art. This new art was accompanied by a conscious taste … Read more » “Modern art in the twelfth century”

The Origin of Nationalism

Nationalism contributed much to the destructiveness and probably not less to the richness of European political culture. There is every reason to assume that nationalism, at least in the near future, will endure, despite all attempts to herald the start of a post-national period. It is too deeply embedded in Western political culture. And this … Read more » “The Origin of Nationalism”