Roman Imperialism

Although the Romans claimed to be conservative, it was their open mind to other cultures that seems to have empowered their ability to conquer. In this view, Roman imperialism was not only political and military in nature, but also cultural in the sense that they used conquered cultures to shape their own culture and identity. … Read more » “Roman Imperialism”

European Identities

Identity must take into account relevant issues such as topography, religious change, material culture, art, architecture, and infrastructure to understand the formation of European cultural heritage. Traditionally, identification of people has taken root in the forms of art that they create. Representation of identity in the European discourse crosses over several major art movements and … Read more » “European Identities”

The Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire’s history lies at the heart of the European experience. Understanding that history explains how much of the continent developed between the early Middle Ages and the nineteenth century. The Empire lasted more than a millennium and encompassed much of the continents. It addition to present-day Germany, it included all or part … Read more » “The Holy Roman Empire”

The Next 100 Years

It is unreasonable to talk of Europe as if it were one entity. It is not, in spite of the existence of the European Union, a free trade zone and a European currency. Europe consists of a series of sovereign and contentious nation-states. The European Union, which emerged from the European Economic Community (1957), is … Read more » “The Next 100 Years”

Guilt and Atonement

Nowhere are people more afraid of history repeating itself than in Germany, where atonement is one of the driving forces of politics. Its shaky intelligent services, its acceptance of over one million refugees, its commitment to open borders, even the entire euro project: all of them are meant to contain, neutralise and atone. The nation … Read more » “Guilt and Atonement”