The Origins of the Nation-State

Between 1050 and 1350 a fierce struggle developed between the papacy and the German Empire over competing claims and jurisdiction. The struggle acquired a permanent influence on ways of thinking about society and government. In the long run it contributed to the emergence of constitutionalism in Europe and steps towards the creation of Nation-States (L. Siedentop, Inventing the Individual. The Origins of Western Liberalism (London 2014).