United Nations

The progress of international law is intimately connected with the victory everywhere of constitutional government over autocratic government or democracy over autocracy. L. Oppenheimer, ‘International Law. A Treatise’ (New York 1921), p. 95.

European Cosmopolitanism

The challenge, then, is to take the mind and hearts formed over the long millennia of living in local troops and equip them with ideas and institutions that will allow us to live together as the global tribe we have become. K.A. Appiah, Cosmopolitanism,Ethics in a world of strangers. New York, 2006.

Journalism and Democracy

This trend in American journalism began in earnest with the Philadephia newspaper war of 1792. Such partisan journalism played a crucial role in raising party awareness and contributed to the development of democratic politcal practices in America. (F. D. Cogliano, Revolutionary America 1763-1815 ( London 2000), p. 146).

Speculation in the Middle Ages

The fertile minds of those holding or seeking capital did not fail to find other legal formulae to assure themselves of the renumeration necessary to obtain credit. In the end these were all complex inventions. Everyone took part in some extent in this game. J. Favier, The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages (New … Read more » “Speculation in the Middle Ages”

Renaissance and Reformation

Renaissance and Reformation were connected. However far it still may have to go, in the end human nature tends in the long term to construct human societies according to increasingly humanitarian ethical norms. A. Levi, Renaissance and Reformation (New haven 2002), p. 369.