Roman Ruins

Roman buildings, even in ruins, helped to keep alive the concept of international dominion, a concept adopted by the Christian Church and emulated time and again by later politcal leaders (M. Stokstad, Medieval Art, Washington 1986).

Rushing about Europe

When people rush about Europe from one glittering centre of work or pleasure to another, passing, at enormous expense, through a series of mammoth hotels, and blatant carnivals, they little know what they are missing, and how cheaply priceless things can be obtained. W.S. Churchill, Painting as a Pastime, in Strand Magazine, December 1921-January 1922.

The Topical Medieval View of the World

We still owe debts to the medieval view of the world. The attitudes and images of 500 to 1000 years ago are the roots of many contemporary beliefs and prejudices. We may have turned increasingly to journalism, film, and multimedia, but our visual world contains many similar elements. V. Sekules, Medieval Art, Oxford 2001.

The Seeds for European States

The period between the third en fourth centuries was of profound change. Western Europe became fragmented and the east was consolidated as the Byzantine Empire. We can see the results of the profound shifts in the social, political and religious underpinnings and the building blocks that sketched what would become early modern Europe. (

The First European Documentary

Greek pottery is one of the most spectacular and familar crafts of classical antiquity. Their function as containers and purveyors of messages needs consideration, while the scenes themselves provide a mighty subject that ranges the whole field of art, society, religion and mythology. J. Boardman, The History of Greek Vases, London 2001.