European Empire


Manet and his followers collaborated in a scopic regime which has had profound political and cultural implications for the twentieth century, providing, for example, many of the tools to dismantle authoritarian habits of mind and to revive the fancifulness of individual choices. P. Fritzsche, Reading Berlin 1900 (London 1998).

Manet and political and cultural implications


Manet and his followers collaborated in a scopic regime which has had profound political and cultural implications for the twentieth century, providing, for example, many of the tools to dismantle authoritarian habits of mind and to revive the fancifulness of individual choices. P. Fritzsche, Reading Berlin 1900 (London 1998).

Democracy, Arts and Europe


The nineteenth century in Europe was punctuated at its beginnings, middle, and end by revolutions and less violent struggles. For the first time in European history, painting and sculpture, as well as the new reproductive media, were available as instruments of democracy as well as of domination. S.F. Eisenman, Nineteenth Century Art. A Critical History … Read more » “Democracy, Arts and Europe”

The Roman Cohesion


Among the elite there developed a high degree of cultural consensus, such that a provincial aristocrat from one corner of the empire would have a great deal of cultural common ground with his counterpart in the furthermost reaches of Rome’s domains. Such cultural agreement was of high value in cementing the political co-operation. M. Goodman, … Read more » “The Roman Cohesion”

The Roman Empire and the European Union


The (Roman) Empire did not grow into a nation. It resembled modern Austria rather than France or Germany. But it gained – what Austria has missed – a unity of sentiment and culture which served some of the purposes of national feeling. She alone of conquerors had taken to her bosom the world which she … Read more » “The Roman Empire and the European Union”