Catalan Map (1375), Europe. National Library, Paris. Photo: Wikipedia

The European Spectator was founded in 2007. The European Spectator analyses, informs and writes about European integration, interdependence and cooperation. The focus is on history and art their different interpretations at European, national, regional or local level. Four periods and themes are being dealt with in particular: the Roman Empire and romanization, the eleventh and twelfth centuries and Romanesque art, the long nineteenth century (1815-1918) and its aftermath the Interbellum (1919-1939) and the functioning of the European Union. The European Spectator focuses in particular on Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain.


Emperors on the Rhine

For more than five centuries, emperors have determined the fate of half of Europe. They were glorious emperors, God’s chosen rulers, ruthless commanders or capable politicians. But they succeeded only in the complex interaction with the pillars of their power, with secular and ecclesiastical princes, bishops, Jewish communities and citizens of cities. It was only … Read more » “Emperors on the Rhine”


Timber rafts on the Rhine

For centuries, timber rafts have been the most remarkable, but forgotten, means of transport on the Rhine. In the sixteenth century, this transport started slowly after it was decided in the Dutch province Holland that cities could only be built with stones. The demand for (long) piles to strengthen the fundaments of the houses in … Read more » “Timber rafts on the Rhine”


The St. Nicolas Chapel Nimwegen

The ancient Batavian settlement near the Dutch city of Nijmegen (Nimwegen) was called Oppidum Batavorum by the Romans, until the Roman emperor Traian granted the right of market in 104 AD and called the city was called Ulpia Noviomagus (the new market). The Romans built a castle (Castellum) on the hill. Frankish rulers reigned over this … Read more » “The St. Nicolas Chapel Nimwegen”


The Emperor and the Sultan

The Badisches Landesmuseum is celebrating the 100th anniversary of its founding in 2019. The world renowned Karlsruher Türkenbeute is at the heart of the museum’s exhibitions – atrophy collection assembled by the Baden margraves from the 17th century Turkish wars. It is more emblematic of Baden’s history than almost any other collection, while also illuminating … Read more » “The Emperor and the Sultan”

Churchill´s Europe

America’s National Churchill Museum

America’s National Churchill Museum is located on the campus of Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. The museum is the site where Winston Churchill gave his famous Iron Curtain speech on 5 March 1946. This speech actually marked the beginning of the Cold War. A short summary of the speech and its most famous phrase reads … Read more » “America’s National Churchill Museum”

European Affairs

The New Monarchs of Europe

The recently poisoned Russian dissident accuses the former German Bundeskanzler Herr Schröder (die Neue Zurcher Zeitung 7.10.2020) of corruption during and after his political career. He supported the Russian (business) expansion from the very beginning of his chancellorship and is on the payroll of his Russian master ever since.  He explicitly states that Herr Schröder … Read more » “The New Monarchs of Europe”


Although the Romans claimed to be conservative, it was their open mind to other cultures that seems to have empowered their ability to conquer. In this view, Roman imperialism was not only political and military in nature, but also cultural in the sense that they used conquered cultures to shape their own culture and identity. … Read more » “Roman Imperialism”


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