Catalan Map (1375), Europe. National Library, Paris. Photo: Wikipedia

The European Spectator was founded in 2008. The European Spectator analyses, informs and writes about history, art, exhibitions, stories and European integration, cultural interdependence and political cooperation. The focus is on the Netherlands and projects and the relationship with Switzerland.


Remember Hole One

During construction work on Golf Centre Amsteldijk in the Bovenkerkerpolder near Amstelveen, a British aircraft wreckage from the Second World War was found. It is a Handley-Page Halifax MKIII. On 16 June 1944, almost 300 bombers flew from Full Sutton airfield near Yorkshire to Sterkrade near Bicholt in Germany to bomb the Fisher Tropsch synthetic … Read more » “Remember Hole One”


Knokke-Heist en de Kunst

De badplaats Knokke-Heist in West-Vlaanderen (België) is een stad van en voor de kunst. Achter het (kunstmatig) aangelegde brede strand en de boulevard verbergt zich een prachtige villawijk met Engelse, Vlaamse, Franse en diverse andere architectuur. De onlangs overleden burgemeester Graaf Leopold Lippens (1941-2021) heeft decennia deze badplaats gekoesterd. Vanaf Den Helder tot aan de … Read more » “Knokke-Heist en de Kunst”


The Archangel Michael of Zwolle

Around the eight century, a number of merchants settled around a natural inlet on a tributary of a river. The settlement soon developed into a harbour, with trading firms and warehouses. The commercial heart grew up in the first church, founded in 765 by Saint Lebuinus and Saint Marcellinus in the area that later became … Read more » “The Archangel Michael of Zwolle”


Manet and Astruc

Edouard Manet (1832–1883) is one of the most famous artists of the 19th century. Zacharie Astruc (1833–1907), however, is almost unknown as an artist today. Initially he made a name for himself as an art critic: he was the first to publicly defend Manet’s works. In the 1860s Manet painted him several times. With the Portrait … Read more » “Manet and Astruc”

Churchill´s Europe

America’s National Churchill Museum

America’s National Churchill Museum is located on the campus of Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. The museum is the site where Winston Churchill gave his famous Iron Curtain speech on 5 March 1946. This speech actually marked the beginning of the Cold War. A short summary of the speech and its most famous phrase reads … Read more » “America’s National Churchill Museum”

European Affairs

Rutte, NATO, European Activism and Opportunism

The (former) Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Mark Rutte, apparently has a good chance of becoming the next Secretary-General of NATO. However, someone other than Rutte is the right person to lead this organisation. He is a poor and highly nonchalant manager of his government (he has had many in 13 years). He has a … Read more » “Rutte, NATO, European Activism and Opportunism”


Although the Romans claimed to be conservative, it was their open mind to other cultures that seems to have empowered their ability to conquer. In this view, Roman imperialism was not only political and military in nature, but also cultural in the sense that they used conquered cultures to shape their own culture and identity. … Read more » “Roman Imperialism”


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