The Soul of Europe


Plalza de España in Cadiz. The monument commemorates the liberal and modern constitution adpoted by the Spanish Cortes on March 12, 1812. Though the constitution was in effect for only two years, it did prove helpful and served as an example for many other constitutions.

Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz, a German scholar, published the ‘Constitutions of the European States during the preceding 25 years’  in 1825 (Constitutionen der europäischen Staaten seit den letzten 25 Jahren in the original German text). The first edition consisted of 4 volumes and 340 documents, to be enlarged and updated in 1833. The timing was … Read more » “The Soul of Europe”

A French Immigrant in New York


The most American of Americans, Liberty, was herself an immigrant from France. Parisians, watching the statue’s construction in the city in the 1880’s, proclaimed it was the eighth marvel of the world, even bigger than the colossus of Rhodus. The statue was an initiative of a group of French intellectuals, protesting what they saw as … Read more » “A French Immigrant in New York”

Mad as March Hares


On 28 October 1908  the Daily Telegraph published an interview with the German Emperor Wilhelm II, the grandson of Queen Victoria of England. “You English,” he said, “are mad, mad, mad as March hares. What has come over you that you are so completely given over to suspicions quite unworthy of a great nation? What more … Read more » “Mad as March Hares”

The oldest European Supreme Court


Pope Johannes XXII ( 1249-1334, Pope from 1316-1334). In 1331 he formalized and wrote down the procedures of the Rota

The Sacra Rota Romana is the oldest supreme court of Europe. Roman law was the authoritative text and the ius commune appeared. European law in the true sense of the word. A new legal science was born, based on the Corpus iuris civilis. The development of ecclesiastical law was more important from an administrative point … Read more » “The oldest European Supreme Court”

Pax optima rerum


The Münster Town Hall is known  as the location of the Peace of Westphalia. The building dates from about 1320, though the first structure is already documented in 1250. The Citizens Hall and the Council Chamber (where the councilors met) is first recorded in a chronicle dated 1337. Towards the end of the century, the … Read more » “Pax optima rerum”