Rose Mania


The tulip-mania of the seventeenth century is well known. The financial sector and banking system hardly survived the speculation in tulips. The rose-mania in France in the early years of the nineteenth century is far less known, likely due to the fact that the interest was mainly concentrated on decorations, gardens, paintings and drawings and … Read more » “Rose Mania”

The Peace Flag


The Münster Town Hall is known  as the location of the Peace of Westphalia. The building dates from about 1320, though the first structure is already documented in 1250. The Citizens Hall and the Council Chamber (where the councilors met) is first recorded in a chronicle dated 1337. Towards the end of the century, the … Read more » “The Peace Flag”

Medieval and Modern Pilgrimage


The modern taste for souvenirs is strikingly close to the collecting instincts of Christian pilgrims. Auctions of belongings of famous movie stars, the pilgrimage status of the tomb of Elvys Presly, the football shoes of the legendary Pele or a simple talisman share the same feelings and beliefs. Christian martyrs were the first saints and source … Read more » “Medieval and Modern Pilgrimage”

Scottish Independence and Hadrian


The Roman Emperor Hadrian or Hadrianus (117 to 138 AD) is best known for his passion for Greek culture, interest in architecture and the wall he built between England and Scotland. Hadrian was originally from Spain. As the Roman Empire expanded and became more diverse in the 1st and 2nd century AD, it became possible … Read more » “Scottish Independence and Hadrian”

Intergouvernemental European Success


One of the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna was a diplomatic conference of the Rhine riparian states and, in the Final Act, the principle of freedom of navigation on international waterways. The provisions concerning the river Rhine held the creation of a Central Commission ‘in order to ensure a precise control of the enforcement … Read more » “Intergouvernemental European Success”