Intergouvernemental European Success


One of the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna was a diplomatic conference of the Rhine riparian states and, in the Final Act, the principle of freedom of navigation on international waterways. The provisions concerning the river Rhine held the creation of a Central Commission ‘in order to ensure a precise control of the enforcement … Read more » “Intergouvernemental European Success”

Ungrateful Europeans


Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) did not regret the fall of Constantinople in 1453. He regarded the Byzantine Empire as an unfortunate continuation of the Roman Empire. He hold Byzantium (and Christianity) responsible for the fall of the Roman Empire and the schism of 1054, dividing and alienating the most useful Christian allies and provoking the Islamic … Read more » “Ungrateful Europeans”

Romanisation by Emperors


The words ‘Tsar’ and Kaiser are derived from Caesar (100-44 BC). His adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (63 BC-14 AD) succeeded in permanently establishing the one man rule or emperorship, though he never called himself king, let alone emperor, but princeps inter pares. After 27 BC, he was called Augustus (the venerable), a title conferred by … Read more » “Romanisation by Emperors”

Canada and England connected by Dieppe


The relationship between Dieppe (Normandy, France) and England has always been tumultuous. It was the unification of the Duchy of Normandy and the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror in 1066 that led to centuries of trade, wars, piracy, prosperity, decline and English tourism, sea-bathing and English colony in the nineteenth century. Dieppe had become, like the rest of … Read more » “Canada and England connected by Dieppe”

The Middle Rhine Valley


The Rhine is one of the longest rivers of Europe (1320 km). This river, Rhenus in Roman, became  the frontier of the Roman Empire after 260 AD, when German tribes crushed and crossed the frontier on the right side of the Rhine, called Germania Superior. The other part of occupied German territory was called Raetia, the … Read more » “The Middle Rhine Valley”