Napoleon Europe and Dream


Since the Middle Ages, no empire had been larger than France under Napoleon. The imperial dream is by definition a European dream, rooted in classical, Byzantine, medieval and colonial aspirations. Napoleon and Europe. Dream and Trauma. Kunst- und Kunsthalle, Bonn.

The Common Roots of European Identity


Charlemagne has come to symbolize the common roots of European political and legal culture, with an impact on ideology and imagination that can be traced across the 1 200 years since he died. R. McKitterick, Charlemagne. The formation of a European Identity, Cambridge 2008.

Christianity, Europe and the World


No one is going to deny that Christianity has contributed to the formation of Western civilization. But what we have to ask is whether it can transcend its European background and asserts its universal message without fear or favour to any people, race of colour. G. Barraclough, The Christian World, Boston 1980.

Islamic-Western dialogue


Whoever seeks to engage the Islamic and Western worlds in dialogue cannot avoid difficult issues. At the outset, one must realize that there is neither ‘the’ West nor the Islamic world. And there is definitely no ‘true’ Islam or the ‘real’ West. Prof. Claus Leggewie in http://en.Qantara.de

Turkish Reforms


What set the Ottoman Turks apart was their ability to state-building. In its quest to expand, consolidate and survive, the Ottoman Empire seemed to be constantly reinventing itself throughout history. R. Aldrich (Ed.), The Age of Empires, London 2007, p. 29.