The Duomo of Pisa was built in the heyday of the medieval city-republic Pisa. The building activities of the Romanesque Cathedral started in 1064 at the time of Bishop Guido (bishop from 1061 to 1076). The first architect of the cathedral was Buschetto (1044-1110), others followed to finish the job. The building had to show the fame and power of Pisa.. Epigraphs on the façade celebrated the main maritime victories by spolia of ancient Roman monuments. The close relations with Islamic countries was visualized by the bronze griffon.
The Baptistery, founded in 1152, was built in front of the Cathedral and completed by Nicola (1220-1278) and Giovanni Pisano (1250-1315). The building is deeply imbued with the memories of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The round plan of the Baptistery is unique byn its roundness, the pillars and small arches. Just after the completion of the tower, there occured problems which has made Pisa famous all over the world.
Two new buildings were added to the site of the Square in the thirteenth century. The New hospital, built in 1257 by Pope Alexander IV (1191-1269) as a token of reconciliation with the Apostolic See after fifteen years of crisis, designed to help pilgrims, the poor and the sick. The building currently hosts the Sinopie museum. The Cemetery and the cloister on the north side, the Piazza dei Miracoli or Miracle Square, were built after 1270. The frescos are on display in the Sinopie museum nowadays. (Source and further information: www.opapisa.it).