2016 is characterised by the commemoration of the 700th anniversary of the birth of Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. Born to the ducal House of Luxembourg, Charles IV (1316-1378) is considered one of the great dynastic figures of the Middle Ages and also one of the last non-Habsburg emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. He was crowned King of the Romans (read Germans) on 26 August 1346 and king of Bohemia on 2 september 1347, to be followed by the kingship of Italy in 1355 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in the same year. One of his most relevant political accomplishments with far reaching consequences was the Golden Bull of 1356, codifying the election of the King of the Romans or the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. A majority out of seven prince-electors should decide, they were: the archbishop of Mainz, the archbishop of Cologne, the archbishop of Trier, the king of Bohemia, the count of the Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg and the Margrave of Brandenburg. The house of Habsburg was not involved, but this should change after 1438, when a Habsburger was crowned as Roman king and emperor and from 1526, when Habsburg became king of Bohemia. The historical museum in Luxembourg and the City of Prague pay attention to Charles IV and his political and cultural legacy. (Further information: http://www.karlovapraha.cz and http://mhvl.lu).