The European and American Presidents


European interest for the presidential elections in the United States is enormous. The interest for European ´presidential´ elections is rather modest in the United States however (and in Europe almost a non issue, except for the self-proclaimed Spitzenkandidaten). From 1760 to 1815, Americans were strongly interested in political developments in Europe however. Trans-Atlantic relations assumed an importance which … Read more » “The European and American Presidents”

European Regions Back to the Future


The pre-history of the historical Atlas in Europe was a long one. The history of European mapping goes back to Mesopotamia, the Greeks and Romans. Though ancient geography remained prestigious (educational) pursuits, the Bible and maps depicting the Holy land became the significant inspiration in medieval times, but mapping could not be called ‘historical’. Biblical … Read more » “European Regions Back to the Future”

The American Constitution


The Articles of the American Confederation, ratified in March 1781, gave each state so much power and independence that many political leaders believed that America needed a stronger national government. They finally produced a Constitution in 1788, more then ten years after the Declaration of independence (1776), in the same Hall of Independence in Philadelphia. … Read more » “The American Constitution”

The European Legal Heritage


The history of the European courts in Strasbourg and Luxembourg started long before their foundation after the Second World War. The legal history of Europe reveals a long common tradition of cooperation, integration and concepts of the juridical and appellate system, legal practice and legal education amidst a politically fragmented landscape. It is no exaggeration … Read more » “The European Legal Heritage”

The past and future of Europe


The future of Europe is written into its past of many  different cultures, languages, identities and above all economic, social, fiscal, political and monetary systems, traditions and cultures. A thousand years ago, Europe as we know it today did not exist. Thirty-fifty million people living between the Ural and the British isles, between Scandinavia and … Read more » “The past and future of Europe”