History Will Judge


A thousand years ago, Europe as we know it today did not exist. Thirty million people living between the Ural and the British isles, between Scandinavia and Greece had no reason to think of themselves as a single culture or people. The Roman empire had left only half of the continent with roads, theaters, Latin, … Read more » “History Will Judge”

The New Monarchs of Europe


European monarchies do rather well for outdated institutes. The Grand Duke of Luxemburg Henry I of Luxemburg (1955) is the most recent proof of the pudding. In his Christmas speech of 2012 he referred to a further limitation of grand-ducal power and the necessity of modernization of the constitution. The power of the Grand-Duke is … Read more » “The New Monarchs of Europe”

The American Constitution


The Articles of the American Confederation, ratified in March 1781, gave each state so much power and independence that many political leaders believed that America needed a stronger national government. They finally produced a Constitution in 1787, more then ten years after the Declaration of independence (1776), in the same Hall of Independence in Philadelphia. … Read more » “The American Constitution”

The European and American Presidents


European interest for the presidential elections in the United States is enormous. The interest for European ´presidential´ elections is rather modest in the United States however (and in Europe almost a non issue, except for the self-proclaimed Spitzenkandidaten). From 1760 to 1815, Americans were strongly interested in political developments in Europe however. Trans-Atlantic relations assumed an importance which … Read more » “The European and American Presidents”

European Surrender


One of the most famous paintings of the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez is the Surrender of Breda. Velázquez painted the event in 1634-1635, ten years after it took place. The painting is a symbolic interpretation of the surrender of Breda in 1625, when Spanish troops defeated the beleaguered Dutch city. Two generals confront each other, … Read more » “European Surrender”