On 22 December 1944, the American general Anthony Clement McAuliffe (1898-1975) had enough of one word to teach the powerful German enemy, who had surrounded his troops in Bastogne, a lesson at the request for surrender: Nuts. The general assumed his own strength, confidence in the Allied (American-English) army and especially his troops. And he … Read more » “Nuts”

The Power of Images

The discovery of a bust of Julius Caesar by French archeologists  at the bottom of the Rhône brings into prominence the power of images and propaganda during the last days of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Empire. This bust does not correspond with the approximately 25 busts of Caesar known from the Augustan … Read more » “The Power of Images”

The New Monarchs of Europe

European monarchies do rather well for outdated institutes. The Grand Duke of Luxemburg Henry I of Luxemburg (1955) is the most recent proof of the pudding. In his Christmas speech of 2012 he referred to a further limitation of grand-ducal power and the necessity of modernization of the constitution. The power of the Grand-Duke is already rather restricted, but … Read more » “The New Monarchs of Europe”

Europeanisation of Europe

Once upon a time, one thousand years ago, Europe was a backward continent compared to the Arab world and the Islamic Penisula. The great Roman and Greek legacy was kept alive by monastries and in Arab libraries. This changed after the new millenium however. From the 12th century, the Europeanization of Europe, in so far … Read more » “Europeanisation of Europe”

History Will Judge

A thousand years ago, Europe as we know it today did not exist. Thirty million people living between the Ural and the British isles, between Scandinavia and Greece had no reason to think of themselves as a single culture or people. The Roman empire had left only half of the continent with roads, theaters, Latin, … Read more » “History Will Judge”