The European Spectator was founded in 2007. Europe’s integration and interdependence can only be understood by an adequate knowledge of its history and culture in its European context. Societies, culture and history we characterize today as ‘national’ often have European roots. The Roman invention of concrete, wine drinking and city-planning, the Flemish invention of oil painting or 19th century’s revolutions did not occur in a vacuum, but as a result of cross border developments, contacts, trade and interdependence. The European Spectator highlights the most relevant developments from the perspective of Europe’s artefacts. Many readers will be surprised about the roots of their societies and countries. The main focus will be on the first centuries of the Roman Empire, the Carolingian Empire, the twelfth century and the long nineteenth century (1814-1914).