The European Spectator was founded in 2007. The integration, cooperation, integration and interdependence of Europe’s nation states can only be understood by an adequate knowledge of their history and culture in a European context. Societies, culture and history we characterize nowadays as ‘national’ often have European roots. The Roman invention of concrete, wine drinking and city-planning, the Flemish invention of oil painting or 19th century’s revolutions didn’t occur in a vacuum, but as a result of cross border developments, contacts, trade and interdependence. The European Spectator highlights the most relevant developments from the perspective of artefacts and history. Many readers will be surprised about the roots of their societies and countries. The main focus will be on the first centuries of the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the long nineteenth century (1814-1914). The contributions are mainly focused on Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands and the functioning of the European Union. Most contributions are written in English. Dutch, French and German articles are available by a click on the button.